The Republic of Ireland and QPR defender, who made his debut in 2000 and went on to earn 80 caps for his country, announced the news on Thursday evening.
Dunne said: "I have represented Ireland since I was 15 years of age, and have thoroughly enjoyed all the highs and lows that have come with playing for my country.
"Retiring from international football has been an extremely difficult decision for me to make."
The 34-year-old, who is currently on tour in Ireland with QPR ahead of the new season, added that he will be backing the Republic to qualify for France 2016 under Martin O'Neill.
Paying tribute, O'Neill said: "Richard has been a remarkable player for both club and country. I had the pleasure of working with him at Aston Villa, where he had a big influence on the field.
"He has consistently given 100% every time he has been called on by his country also. I wish him all the best in his club career."