The pair aged 32 and 24, who are from the Derriaghy area, are due to appear before Lisburn Magistrates' Court on Monday morning.
They were arrested along with four other people during police raids on Thursday night and in the early hours of Friday morning.
Three men held in west Belfast and a woman detained in Dunmurry have since been released without charge.
The police operation was linked to a security alert in Barnfield Road, where a suspicious object was recovered by army bomb experts on Friday.
"Police can now confirm that a suspected firearm was recovered," a PSNI spokesman said.
Earlier Jonathan Craig, DUP MLA for Lagan Valley, told UTV that he had concerns over an active dissident cell which he claimed is operating in the Derriaghy, Twinbrook and Poleglass areas.
The Policing Board member said intelligence-led policing had been used to make the arrests and recover the weapon.
He also called for anyone with information to contact police.
As is normal procedure the charges will be reviewed by the PPS.