The posts were announced by the First and deputy First Minister on Wednesday, as part of six signature projects worth £26m.
At secondary school level, 150 recently graduated teachers will be given two-year posts to deliver one-to-one tuition in English and Maths to Year 11 and 12 pupils not projected to get a grade C.
At primary school level, 80 newly qualified teachers will give one-to-one tuition to pupils struggling with reading and maths at Key Stage 2.
"We have committed to ensuring as many school leavers as possible achieve the benchmark five good GCSEs including English and Maths," Sinn Féin Education Minister John O'Dowd said.
"This is a key attainment level that is increasingly required to ensure young people can continue their studies to enter the world of work."
Many young teachers have themselves struggled with getting on the career ladder, but because of a lack of posts rather than qualifications.
Avril Hall-Callaghan from the Ulster Teachers' Union explained: "There are only about 12% of teachers under the age of 30 and the vast majority - over half - are over the age of 40.
"So we really do need to invest in our teaching workforce and try and change the profile of it because obviously, when those older teachers move on, the younger teachers will not have had the experience they need to fill this gap."
Without even the most basic educational qualifications, many of our young people find it a struggle to get a job and create a better life.
First Minister Peter Robinson
As well as effort to improve literacy and numeracy, schemes will also aim to offer increased family support and assist job creation within local communities while tackling dereliction and empty units.
In relation to health, £2m in additional support will be received by the Department of Health's Parenting Programmes.
Up to 1,200 parents living in areas of deprivation will be supported with up to 50 additional health workers expected to be employed, while 20 new 'Nurture Units' will be created - in addition to the seven already being rolled out across Northern Ireland.
The units were established in order to improve the lives and educational attainment of children by offering support, help and guidance to targeted pupils within the school environment.
According to OFMdFM, they have already demonstrated their capacity to improve the lives and educational attainment of children.
A pilot intervention to support young NEET people, those Not in Education, Employment or Training, will be rolled out to 500 families through the Department for Education and Learning.
Ten Family Support Hubs will be established to provide coordinated early intervention services in local areas, providing a range of holistic family support services.
Meanwhile, £4million has been allocated to ten Social Enterprise Incubation Hubs which encourage business start-ups in empty or derelict clusters of units and shops.
The aim is to make a tangible difference, particularly for our children and young people, over the next two years.
Deputy First Minister Martin McGuinness
"The Delivering Social change Framework is how we, as an Executive, will tackle poverty and deprivation," First Minister Peter Robinson said.
"We want everyone to be equipped with the skills to strengthen our economic growth and for everyone to benefit from our mainstream education, health and employment programmes."
Deputy First Minister Martin McGuinness said the announcement is about "working together in new ways, across Departments and in partnership with the community, businesses and wider society".
He added: "This programme will lay the foundation for sustained social improvement and economic growth in the longer-term.
"Crucially, it underscores the importance that the entire Executive places on addressing the needs of all of our citizens - in particular, those suffering disadvantage and those who have been left on the margins of society."