Her single Next To Me was named best song musically and lyrically and also won the prize for most performed work.
The awards follow a hugely successful year for the singer after she performed at the Olympic ceremonies and topped the charts with her debut album Our Version Of Events.
Last month, it set a new record for the longest unbroken top 10 run for a debut album, surpassing the 62-week span of The Beatles' Please Please Me.
Sande was unable to attend the awards ceremony after heading to the US to appear in the final of American Idol.
Other big name winners at the event included former Oasis frontman Noel Gallagher, who was rewarded for his outstanding song collection, and dance music star Calvin Harris, who was named songwriter of the year.
Ivor Novello Award winners:
Best Contemporary Song: Pelican - The Maccabees
Most Performed Work: Next to Me - Emeli Sande
Inspiration Award: Marc Almond
Album Award: An Awesome Wave - Alt-J
Award for Outstanding Achievement: Justin Hayward
Best Original Film Score: Anna Karenina - Dario Marianelli
Best Song Musically and Lyrically: Next to Me - Emeli Sande
International Achievement: Gavin Rossdale
Songwriter of the Year: Calvin Harris
Outstanding Song Collection: Noel Gallagher
Special International Award: Randy Newman