The singer was arrested on suspicion of driving under the influence and is also accused of "drag racing" on Miami Beach in Florida.
Speaking at a press conference, Miami Beach Chief of Police Raymond A Martinez said the star also resisted arrest although "without violence".
He told reporters: "He did acknowledge that he did take a prescription medication and that he had been smoking marijuana and that he did consume a beer".
Bieber was arrested after police saw two cars racing at around at 4.09am local time.
Mr Martinez said officers "estimated he was going anywhere up to 55 to 60 miles an hour" before he was stopped.
Two vehicles had apparently been used to block off an area for the drag race, with Bieber in a yellow Lamborghini.
RnB singer Khalii, who was the driver of a red Ferrari which was involved in the race, was also arrested.
Mr Martinez said the two cars "were starting from a stop position and they were accelerating up to a high rate of speed and going almost double the speed limit in that area".
Bieber failed a field sobriety test and was taken to the Miami Beach police station for a breath test.
The 19-year-old has had a number of brushes with the law in recent months.
Last week his home in California was raided by police following claims he pelted his neighbours home with eggs.
After a search of the property, Bieber's friend Lil Za was taken into custody on suspicion of narcotics possession.
He was subsequently released.
Last year Bieber disappointed thousands of fans in the UK by showing up to gigs late, which left many of his young followers having to leave his performances only moments after he started performing to catch trains home.
He was also involved in a scuffle outside his hotel in London.